Marijuana

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Marijuana is the dried leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main ingredient in marijuana that causes people who use it to experience a calm euphoria. Marijuana changes brain messages that affect sensory perception and coordination. This can cause users to see, hear, and feel stimuli differently and to exhibit slower reflexes.

THC, the main active ingredient in marijuana, binds to and activates specific receptors, known as cannabinoid receptors. There are many of these receptors in parts of the brain that control memory, thought, concentration, time and depth perception, and coordinated movement. By activating these receptors, THC interferes with the normal functioning of the cerebellum, the part of the brain most responsible for balance, posture, and coordination of movement. The cerebellum coordinates the muscle movements ordered by the motor cortex.

Nerve impulses alert the cerebellum that the motor cortex has directed a part of the body to perform a certain action. Almost instantly, impulses from that part of the body inform the cerebellum as to how the action is being carried out. The cerebellum compares the actual movement with the intended movement and then signals the motor cortex to make any necessary corrections. In this way, the cerebellum ensures that the body moves smoothly and efficiently.

The hippocampus, which is involved with memory formation, also contains many cannabinoid receptors. Studies have suggested that marijuana activates cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus and affects memory by decreasing the activity of neurons in this area. The effect of marijuana on long-term memory is less certain, but while someone is under the influence of marijuana, short-term memory can be compromised. Further, research studies have shown chronic administration of THC can permanently damage the hippocampus of rats, suggesting that marijuana use can lead to permanent memory impairment.

Marijuana also affects receptors in brain areas and structures responsible for sensory perception. Marijuana interferes with the receiving of sensory messages (for example, touch, sight, hearing, taste, and smell) in the cerebral cortex. For many years, it was known that THC acted on cannabinoid receptors in the brain.

Long-term use of marijuana (THC) produces changes in the limbic system that are similar to those that occur after long-term use of other major drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin, and alcohol. These changes are most evident during withdrawal from THC. During withdrawal, there are increases in both the levels of a brain chemical involved in stress and certain emotions and the activity of neurons in the amygdala. These same kinds of changes also occur during withdrawal from other drugs of abuse, suggesting that there may be a common factor in the development of drug dependence.

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